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Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart: STYLE & CITATION

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APA Style & Citation Guide

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American Psychological Association (APA)

7th Edition

As a general rule, use APA style for references and citations most relevant to writing in psychology, nursing, business, communications, engineering, and related fields.

*IB Programs: Psychology, Environmental Systems & Society, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geography, Mathematics, Computer Science.

Be sure to checkout the Publication Manual of the APA or the APA Style website for detailed standards and procedures. 

In-Text Citations: A Quick Guide Template

Source: APA Style

In-Text Citations
1 Author (Holmes, 1887)
2 Authors (Watson & Holmes, 1887)
3 or more Authors (Moriarty et al., 1893)

Group Author
often government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and task forces

First time with abbreviation: 

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2021)

Then all subsequent mentions:

(CDC, 2021)

References: A Quick Guide Template

Source: APA Style

Basic Format:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work. URL or DOI if available

Ex. King, S. (2000). On writing. Scribner.

American Psychological Association. (2019). Elements of reference list entries.

Reference Guide for Journal Article, Books, and Edited Book Chapters.

Supplemental Resources

"The links on [APA's Style References] page will take you to samples of professional and student papers, bias-free language, table and figures, reference entries, and cover letters and response to reviewers for manuscript submission. Additional information describes how to use journal article reporting standards (JARS), historical context in quotation, and accessible color, headings, URLs, and typography.

MLA Style & Citation Guide

Modern Language Association (MLA)

9th Edition

As a general rule, use MLA style for references and citations in literature, arts, and humanities. 

*IB Programs: All Languages A & B, Economics, Design Technology, Film Studies, Visual Arts, Theatre, Music, World Studies

Be sure to checkout the MLA Handbook by The Modern Language Association of America or the MLA Style Center website for detailed standards and procedures. 

In-Text Citations: A Quick Guide Template

Source: MLA Style Center

What is in-text citation?

The brief form of the reference that you include in the body of your work that directs your reader to the entry in the works-cited list.

  • Citation in prose means including the author's last name or the title (or descrip­tion) of the work within the page text and the page number at the end of the sentence in parentheses. 
    • Ex. Stephen King's On Writing is equal parts memoir and the author's advice on the craft of writing. 
  • Parenthetical citation means citing the original sources that appear in the text of your paper; use when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. 
    • Ex. According to Stephen King, his first attempt at being published came from "a literary agent and compulsive science fiction memorabilia collector named Forrest J. Ackerman" who rejected his story for Spaceman magazine in 1960 (35).

Works Cited: A Quick Guide Template
Source: MLA Style Center

Ex. King, Stephen. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. Scribner, 2000.

Interactive Practice Template
Use this template as a guide, but always double-check your FORMATTING is correct.

Meet Your Library Staff

Plagiarism, Copyright, & Trademark

Quick Guide to Citing Images in APA & MLA

How to Cite Artificial Intelligence

If using Artificial Intelligence tools in your writing be sure to:

  • cite the generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, quote, or incorporate into your own work any content (whether text, image, data, or other) that was created by it 
  • acknowledge all functional uses of the tool (like editing your prose or translating words) in a note, your text, or another suitable location 
  • take care to vet the secondary sources it cites (see example 5 below for more details)

MLA 9th ed.

In-text citation: ("a shortened text of the prompt") 

ex. ("Describe the consequences for...") 

Work cited: " Full Text of prompt" prompt. Name of AI Tool, version number if known, Name of company that made the tool, Day Month Year content was generated, General URL of Tool.

ex. “Describe the consequences for artificial intelligence in lieu of critical thinking” prompt. ChatGPT, 4 Mar. version, OpenAI, 13 Oct. 2023,

APA 7th ed.

In-text citation: Company and Year

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)

Reference cited: Name of Company. (Year). Name of AI Tool (version number) [Large language model]. General URL of Tool.

ex. OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Important Documents

"In-Text Citation & Reference List" Tables

General Information

Quick Links to Style Guides and More Information